Panic Attack

Anxiety or a panic attack causes inattention to instructions. This effects psychophysical testing by causing confusion in responding to oral instructions.  It would exacerbate the confusion associates with the Miranda warnings in close temporal proximity to the reading of the implied consent form.  Such confusion eliminates the requisite knowledge to form a informed willful decision.  Therefore, it serves as the basis underling the “confusion doctrine”.



{Observations/Psychophysicals and Refusal}